Python is an object-oriented programming language, which means that it uses classes and objects to structure and organize code. In this article, we will take a closer look at the basics of Python classes and objects, including how to create them, how to use them, and some common mistakes to avoid.

Creating Classes in Python

A class is a blueprint for creating objects (also called instances), which are instances of a class. To create a class in Python, you use the class keyword, followed by the name of the class, and a set of parentheses. Inside the parentheses, you can define any class variables and methods. Here’s an example of a simple class called Dog:

class Dog:
    def __init__(self, name, breed): = name
        self.breed = breed
    def bark(self):

In this example, the class Dog has two class variables: name and breed. It also has a method called bark, which simply prints “Woof!” when called. The special method init is called a constructor and is used to initialize the class variables when an object of the class is created.

Creating Objects in Python

Once you have defined a class, you can use it to create objects. To create an object of a class, you use the class name followed by parentheses. Here’s an example of creating an object of the Dog class:

dog1 = Dog("Fido", "Golden Retriever")

In this example, we have created an object called dog1, which is an instance of the Dog class. The two arguments passed to the Dog class during the object creation are passed to the init constructor as arguments.

Using Classes and Objects in Python

Once you have created an object of a class, you can use it to access the class variables and methods. Here’s an example of using the dog1 object to access the class variables and call the bark method:

print( # Output: Fido
print(dog1.breed) # Output: Golden Retriever
dog1.bark() # Output: Woof!

In this example, we have accessed the name and breed class variables of the dog1 object and printed them. We also called the bark method of the dog1 object, which printed “Woof!”.

Common Mistakes to Avoid

When working with classes and objects in Python, there are a few common mistakes to avoid. One of the most common mistakes is to forget the self parameter when defining methods. The self parameter is a reference to the current object, and it must be included as the first parameter of every method.

Another common mistake is to use the class name instead of the object name when accessing class variables and methods. Remember that each object has its own copy of the class variables, so you must use the object name to access them.

Finally, be sure to keep your class and object names clear and meaningful. Avoid using short, ambiguous names, and use meaningful, descriptive names instead.


Python classes and objects are a powerful tool for structuring and organizing your code. By understanding the basics of classes and objects, you can create well-organized, reusable code that is easy to maintain and debug. Keep in mind the common mistakes and always use clear, meaningful names for your classes and objects. With this knowledge, you’re ready to start creating your own classes and objects in Python.

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