Control flow statements and loops are used in Python to alter the order of program execution and repeat code based on certain conditions. These statements include `if`/`else` statements for making decisions based on conditions, as well as `for` and `while` loops for repeating code.

## Conditional statements

Conditional statements in Python are used to make decisions based on whether a certain condition is true or false. The basic syntax of a conditional statement is:

``````if condition:
statement(s)
else:
statement(s)
``````

Here, `condition` is a Boolean expression that is evaluated to either `True` or `False`. If the condition is true, the code block following the `if` statement is executed. Otherwise, the code block following the `else` statement is executed.

Here’s an example that uses a conditional statement to determine whether a number is even or odd:

``````num = 7
if num % 2 == 0:
print("The number is even")
else:
print("The number is odd")
``````

In this example, the `num` variable is checked for whether it is evenly divisible by 2 using the modulo operator `%`. If the result is 0 (i.e., the number is even), the first print statement is executed. Otherwise, the second print statement is executed.

You can also use nested `if` statements to make more complex decisions based on multiple conditions. For example:

``````age = 25
if age < 18:
print("You are a minor")
else:
if age < 65:
In this example, the age variable is checked for whether it falls into one of three categories: minor, adult, or senior citizen. The nested `if` statements allow for multiple conditions to be evaluated in a specific order.
Conditional statements are an essential part of programming, and they allow you to create programs that can make decisions based on various conditions. Python’s `if`/`else` statements provide a straightforward syntax for implementing conditional logic, while nested `if` statements allow for more complex decision-making. As you continue to learn Python, you will discover even more ways to use control flow statements and loops to write efficient and effective code.